Part B Directions:
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the A-G for each of the numbered paragraph (41-45). There are two extra subheadings. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
[A] Eye fixations are brief
[B] Too much eye contact is instinctively felt to rude
[C] Eye contact can be a friendly social signal
[D] Personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact
[E] Biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated
[F] Most people are not comfortable holding eye contact with strangers
[G] Eye contact can also be aggressive.
In a social situation, eye contact with another person can show that you are paying attention in a friendly way. But it can also be antagonistic such as when a political candidate turns toward their competitor during a debate and makes eye contact that signals hostility. Here’s what hard
science reveals about eye contact:
We know that a typical infant will instinctively gaze into its mother’s eyes, and she will look back. This mutual gaze is a major part of the attachment between mother and child. In adulthood, looking someone else in a pleasant way can be a complimentary sign of paying attention. It can catch someone’s attention in a crowded room, “Eye contact and smile” can signal availability and confidence, a common-sense notion supported in studies by psychologist Monica Moore.
Neuroscientist Bonnie Augeung found that the hormone oxytocin increased the amount of eye contact from men toward the interviewer during a brief interview when the direction of their gaze was recorded. This was also found in high-functioning men with some autistic spectrum symptoms, who may tend to avoid eye contact. Specific brain regions that respond during direct gaze are being explored by other researches, using advanced methods of brain scanning.
With the use of eye-tracking technology, Julia Minson of the Harvard Kennedy School of Government concluded that eye contact can signal very different kinds of messages, depending on the situation. While eye contact may be a sign of connection or trust in friendly situations, it’s more likely to be associated with dominance or intimidation in adversarial situations. “Whether you´re a politician or a parent, it might be helpful to keep in mind that trying to maintain eye contact may backfire if you´re trying to convince someone who has a different set of beliefs than you,” said Minson.
When we look at a face or a picture, our eyes pause on one spot at a time, often on the eyes or mouth. These pauses typically occur at about three per second, and the eyes then jump to another spot, until several important points in the image are registered like a series of snapshots. How the whole image is then assembled and perceived is still a mystery although it is the subject of current research.
In people who score high in a test of neuroticism, a personality dimension associated with self-consciousness and anxiety, eye contact triggered more activity associated with avoidance, according to the Finnish researcher Jari Hietanen and colleagues. “Our findings indicate that people do not only feel different when they are the centre of attention but that their brain reactions also differ.” A more direct finding is that people who scored high for negative emotions like anxiety looked at others for shorter periods of time and reported more comfortable feelings when others did not look directly at them.
Part C Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Following the explosion of creativity in Florence during the 14th century known as the Renaissance, the modern world saw a departure from what it had once known. It turned from God
and the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and instead favoured a more humanistic approach to being. Renaissance ideas had spread throughout Europe well into the 17th century, with the arts and sciences flourishing extraordinarily among those with a more logical disposition. (46)With the Church’s teachings and ways of thinking eclipsed by the Renaissance, the gap between the Medieval and modem periods had been bridged leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories.
During the Renaissance, the great minds of Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei demonstrated the power of scientific study and discovery. (47)Before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geo-centric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe. Copernicus theorized in 1543 that all of the planets that we knew of revolved not around the Earth, but the Sun, a system that was later upheld by Galileo at his own expense. Offering up such a theory during a time of high tension between scientific and religious minds was branded as heresy, and any such heretics that continued to spread these lies were to be punished by imprisonment or even death.
(48)Despite attempts by the Church to suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalists, more explanations for how the universe functioned were being made at a rate that the people could no longer ignore. It was with these great revelations that a new kind of philosophy founded in reason was born.
The Church’s long standing dogma was losing the great battle for truth to rationalists and scientists. This very fact embodied the new ways of thinking that swept through Europe during most of 17th century. (49)As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the Renaissance was over and it was time for a new era—the Age of Reason.
The 17th and 18th centuries were times of radical change and curiosity. Scientific method, reductionism and the questioning of Church ideals was to be encouraged, as were ideas of liberty, tolerance and progress. (50) Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase ‘sapere aude’ or ‘dare to know’, after Immanuel Kant used it in his essay “An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?”. It was the purpose and responsibility of great minds to go forth and seek out the truth, which they believed to be founded in knowledge.